The aim of this documentary database is to provide grey literature on the various topics addressed in our activities. It is mainly made up of documents collected and/or used by the COSTEA network as we implement our actions. It includes study reports, strategic documents, activity reports, technical files, scientific articles, theses, press articles, books, legal texts, etc. We regularly add to this database as our work moves forward.

These bibliographical references have not been produced by COSTEA and are pooled and shared for collaborative purposes. COSTEA is not accountable for their content.

Type of document




Year of publication

CHOUKRANI H. | Article scientifique | 11 pages | Cahiers Agricultures (in French) | 2023 | French |
Immergés en hiver, les marais saisonniers (merjas) de la plaine du Gharb au Maroc étaient traditionnellement exploités pour le pâturage en été, à côté d’autres usages productifs. Pourtant, ils étaient considérés par l’administration coloniale comme des milieux insalubres et peu valorisés, malgré leur abondance en ressources naturelles. Au cours du XXe siècle, la plaine a fait l’objet d’un aménagement hydro-agricole, incorporant les merjas, pour contribuer aux objectifs nationaux de sécurité alimentaire et d’exportation de produits agricoles. Cet article interroge le regard porté par les acteurs locaux et institutionnels sur les merjas et les bénéfices qu’elles procurent, à travers une analyse des services écosystémiques. Si les institutions les considèrent comme des terres vierges à aménager et des zones tampon
de régulation des crues pour protéger les secteurs aménagés et les villes, les collectivités riveraines les considèrent comme des espaces productifs, défavorisés par les crues. L’étude montre des visions contrastées des services écosystémiques, où chaque acteur a une vision utilitariste des merjas. Malgré le débat international sur la biodiversité et le stockage de carbone dans les zones humides, les dimensions
écologiques sont peu citées. L’approche par les services écosystémiques dévoile les antagonismes entre acteurs, mais peut être un moyen de négociation sur le devenir des merjas dans une vision territoriale
Eduardo Cristóbal Rodríguez LLivipuma | Thesis/Dissertation | 112 pages | 2023 |
El cambio de uso de suelo en las cuencas tiene implicaciones en la pérdida de suelo y en el incremento de la escorrentía superficial. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar los efectos en la erosión hídrica y el hidrograma de crecidas por del cambio del uso del suelo en la microcuenca del río Puca. Se aplico el modelo RUSLE con el uso de SIG para la estimación de la erosión hídrica y el modelo hidrológico HEC-HMS para la generación de hidrogramas de crecida para periodos de retorno de 25, 50 y 100 años. Para conocer el comportamiento de la escorrentía por el cambio del uso del suelo se establecieron tres escenarios con diferentes periodos de retorno (TR). De acuerdo con el uso de suelo del año 2016, el 17, 33, 34 y 16% de la superficie total (224.06 km2) de la microcuenca, presenta un nivel de erosión normal, ligero, moderado y severo, respectivamente. La pérdida promedio de suelo es de 7.4 t ha-1año-1 y la cantidad de sedimentos que llega al cauce del río Puca es de 0.8 t ha-1año-1. Los hidrogramas de crecida para periodos de retorno de 25, 50 y 100 años genera caudales máximos de 364.9, 422.2, y 531.5 m3/s, respectivamente. Los tres escenarios para TR de 25, 50 y 100 años generaron nueve hidrogramas de crecida, los máximos caudales fueron incrementándose según el progresivo cambio de uso del suelo. En el escenario 2 para un TR de 50 años se genera el desbordamiento del río Puca en el punto de salida de la microcuenca. El cambio de uso de suelo genera la pérdida del suelo (erosión hídrica), sedimentación del río Puca y cambios en la respuesta hidrológica (hidrogramas de crecida) de la microcuenca.
KUPER M. | Article scientifique | 26 pages | Water Alternatives | 2023 | Anglais |
The development of intensive irrigated agriculture in arid California has inspired many governments and people around the world. In the paper, we show how 'California' as a social imaginary influenced North Africa’s irrigation policies. We trace the influence of this imaginary at two very different and critical junctures: in Morocco under the French Protectorate from the 1930s to the 1950s and in the contemporary Algerian Sahara. We argue that the influence of the 'California' imaginary persisted because of how it appeared to be the perfect embodiment of capitalist modernity while at the same time exhibiting two crucial sociopolitical ambiguities; the first ambiguity concerned the proper role of the state and the second had to do with the California imaginary’s overall implications in terms of social equity. These ambiguities enabled governing actors to naturalise and routinise this imported imaginary even as they used it to forge distinct types of political settlements that were in line with local historical circumstances. We thus argue that the notion of imaginary, inherently visual and polysemic, is usefully distinguished from alternative notions such as paradigms, narratives and frames. We also contend that imaginaries do not function independently from other social forces, but rather that they are embedded in the wider political economy. This leads us to conclude that any transformation of agricultural policies in North Africa will require the diffusion of an alternative imaginary that is as effective in forging powerful social coalitions as the Californian dream proved to be.
BOSSENBROEK L. | Article scientifique | 21 pages | Water Alternatives | 2023 | Anglais |
Groundwater is essential for early-season agriculture in many arid regions. In such regions, however,
groundwater recharge is generally low, leading to groundwater degradation. State responses are seldom effective in addressing this issue, which leads to fatalist narratives of the unsustainability of profitable agricultural growth and the collapse of aquifers. We argue that such narratives make it difficult to recognise more promising instances in which communities find solutions to groundwater degradation. We call for a fine-grained analysis of the social practices around the use of groundwater, which, we argue, represent a process of commoning. We do so while recognising that the collective action of communities is embedded in an intricate set of relations with other stakeholders including the state, and that the positive environmental and transformative social change that is often associated with commoning cannot be taken for granted at the outset. Building on the case of the arid Drâa Valley in Morocco where watermelon production has expanded rapidly, we illustrate how the process of commoning evolves through different social practices, including: 1) the use of new farming practices that reveal the potential of the aquifer; 2) the representation of the aquifer as severely degraded and the development of a narrative around
it being a collective good to be protected against outsiders; 3) the defining and negotiating of rules to control groundwater access and use; and 4) the engagement in negotiations and the resolving of conflicts. Our analysis shows that commoning, as performed by young local farmers, is about extending the lifespan of the aquifer for agricultural production rather than preserving it indefinitely; however, an examination of commoning practices also reveals the capacity of the community to change the course of the future.
Jahangir M. M. R. | Article scientifique | 14 pages | Frontiers in Enviornmental Science | 2022 | Anglais |
Wetland rice cultivation contributes significantly to global warming potential (GWP), an effect which is largely attributed to emissions of methane (CH4). Emerging technologies for wetland rice production such as conservation agriculture (CA) may mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but the effects are not well defined. Investigations were carried out in an irrigated rice (Boro rice) field in the fifth crop after conversion of conventional tillage (CT) to strip tillage (ST). Two crop residue levels (low versus high, LR versus HR) and three nitrogen (N) application rates (N1 = 108, N2 = 144, and N3 = 180 kg N ha−1) were laid out in a split-plot experiment with three replicates. Yield-scaled GHG emissions and GWP were estimated to evaluate the impacts of CA on mitigating CH4 and N2O emissions in the rice paddy field. There was a 55% higher N2O emission in ST with HR coupled with N3 than that in CT with LR coupled with N1. The N2O emission factors ranged from 0.43 to 0.75% in ST and 0.45 to 0.59% in CT, irrespective of the residue level and N rate. By contrast, CH4 emissions were significantly lower in CA than in the conventional practices (CT plus LR). The ST with LR in N2 reduced the GWP by 39% over the GWP in CT with HR in N1 and 16% over the conventional practices. Based on our investigation of the combination of tillage, residue, and N rate treatments, the adoption of CA with high and low residue levels reduced the GWP by 10 and 16%, respectively, because of lower CH4 and N2O emissions
than the current management practices. The relatively high N2O emission factors suggest that mitigation of this GHG in wetland rice systems needs greater attention.
Reiner Wassmann | Article scientifique | 21 pages | Sustainability | 2022 | Anglais |
In this study, we developed user-friendly software (CF-Rice) for calculating the carbon
footprints (CF) of rice products. The approach follows the principles of Life Cycle Assessment while incorporating more flexibility for activities specific to rice production. The graphical user interface provides empirical emission and conversion factors obtained from the literature and from primary research studies of rice value chains. CF-Rice also allows the entering of new values for specific processes or practices. Data outputs distinguish among the contributions of individual stages of the value chain as well as different greenhouse gases (GHG), namely, CH4, N2O and CO2. The new tool was then applied to a scenario assessment of rice production in the regional context of Southeast Asia. The CF baseline of a typical rice value chain in the region accounted for a value of around 2300 g CO2e/kgProd. The CF can be reduced by about 27.4% through water-saving practices alone and can further be reduced up to 37.3% through interventions that increase product recovery rates and, thus, reduce food losses. In contrast, straw incorporation into the soil increased the CF by 26.0%. The tool is well suited for impact assessments of advanced practices and technologies of rice value chains.