Cette base documentaire a pour but de mettre à disposition la littérature grise relative aux différentes thématiques abordées dans les actions que nous portons. Elle est principalement constituée des documents collectés et/ou utilisés par le réseau COSTEA dans le cadre de la mise en œuvre de nos actions. Elle comporte des rapports d’étude, documents stratégiques, rapports d’activités, fiches techniques, articles scientifiques, thèses, articles de presse, livres, textes de loi etc. Cette base documentaire est régulièrement complétée au rythme de la mise en œuvre et de l’avancée de nos actions

Ces références bibliographiques externes aux productions COSTEA sont partagées et mises en commun à titre collaboratif. Leur contenu n’engage pas la responsabilité du COSTEA

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Eduardo Cristóbal Rodríguez LLivipuma | Thèse/Mémoire | 112 pages | 2023 |
El cambio de uso de suelo en las cuencas tiene implicaciones en la pérdida de suelo y en el incremento de la escorrentía superficial. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar los efectos en la erosión hídrica y el hidrograma de crecidas por del cambio del uso del suelo en la microcuenca del río Puca. Se aplico el modelo RUSLE con el uso de SIG para la estimación de la erosión hídrica y el modelo hidrológico HEC-HMS para la generación de hidrogramas de crecida para periodos de retorno de 25, 50 y 100 años. Para conocer el comportamiento de la escorrentía por el cambio del uso del suelo se establecieron tres escenarios con diferentes periodos de retorno (TR). De acuerdo con el uso de suelo del año 2016, el 17, 33, 34 y 16% de la superficie total (224.06 km2) de la microcuenca, presenta un nivel de erosión normal, ligero, moderado y severo, respectivamente. La pérdida promedio de suelo es de 7.4 t ha-1año-1 y la cantidad de sedimentos que llega al cauce del río Puca es de 0.8 t ha-1año-1. Los hidrogramas de crecida para periodos de retorno de 25, 50 y 100 años genera caudales máximos de 364.9, 422.2, y 531.5 m3/s, respectivamente. Los tres escenarios para TR de 25, 50 y 100 años generaron nueve hidrogramas de crecida, los máximos caudales fueron incrementándose según el progresivo cambio de uso del suelo. En el escenario 2 para un TR de 50 años se genera el desbordamiento del río Puca en el punto de salida de la microcuenca. El cambio de uso de suelo genera la pérdida del suelo (erosión hídrica), sedimentación del río Puca y cambios en la respuesta hidrológica (hidrogramas de crecida) de la microcuenca.
KUPER M. | Article scientifique | 26 pages | Water Alternatives | 2023 | Anglais |
The development of intensive irrigated agriculture in arid California has inspired many governments and people around the world. In the paper, we show how 'California' as a social imaginary influenced North Africa’s irrigation policies. We trace the influence of this imaginary at two very different and critical junctures: in Morocco under the French Protectorate from the 1930s to the 1950s and in the contemporary Algerian Sahara. We argue that the influence of the 'California' imaginary persisted because of how it appeared to be the perfect embodiment of capitalist modernity while at the same time exhibiting two crucial sociopolitical ambiguities; the first ambiguity concerned the proper role of the state and the second had to do with the California imaginary’s overall implications in terms of social equity. These ambiguities enabled governing actors to naturalise and routinise this imported imaginary even as they used it to forge distinct types of political settlements that were in line with local historical circumstances. We thus argue that the notion of imaginary, inherently visual and polysemic, is usefully distinguished from alternative notions such as paradigms, narratives and frames. We also contend that imaginaries do not function independently from other social forces, but rather that they are embedded in the wider political economy. This leads us to conclude that any transformation of agricultural policies in North Africa will require the diffusion of an alternative imaginary that is as effective in forging powerful social coalitions as the Californian dream proved to be.
BOSSENBROEK L. | Article scientifique | 21 pages | Water Alternatives | 2023 | Anglais |
Groundwater is essential for early-season agriculture in many arid regions. In such regions, however,
groundwater recharge is generally low, leading to groundwater degradation. State responses are seldom effective in addressing this issue, which leads to fatalist narratives of the unsustainability of profitable agricultural growth and the collapse of aquifers. We argue that such narratives make it difficult to recognise more promising instances in which communities find solutions to groundwater degradation. We call for a fine-grained analysis of the social practices around the use of groundwater, which, we argue, represent a process of commoning. We do so while recognising that the collective action of communities is embedded in an intricate set of relations with other stakeholders including the state, and that the positive environmental and transformative social change that is often associated with commoning cannot be taken for granted at the outset. Building on the case of the arid Drâa Valley in Morocco where watermelon production has expanded rapidly, we illustrate how the process of commoning evolves through different social practices, including: 1) the use of new farming practices that reveal the potential of the aquifer; 2) the representation of the aquifer as severely degraded and the development of a narrative around
it being a collective good to be protected against outsiders; 3) the defining and negotiating of rules to control groundwater access and use; and 4) the engagement in negotiations and the resolving of conflicts. Our analysis shows that commoning, as performed by young local farmers, is about extending the lifespan of the aquifer for agricultural production rather than preserving it indefinitely; however, an examination of commoning practices also reveals the capacity of the community to change the course of the future.
CHOUKRANI H. | Article scientifique | 11 pages | Cahiers Agricultures | 2023 | Français |
Immergés en hiver, les marais saisonniers (merjas) de la plaine du Gharb au Maroc étaient traditionnellement exploités pour le pâturage en été, à côté d’autres usages productifs. Pourtant, ils étaient considérés par l’administration coloniale comme des milieux insalubres et peu valorisés, malgré leur abondance en ressources naturelles. Au cours du XXe siècle, la plaine a fait l’objet d’un aménagement hydro-agricole, incorporant les merjas, pour contribuer aux objectifs nationaux de sécurité alimentaire et d’exportation de produits agricoles. Cet article interroge le regard porté par les acteurs locaux et institutionnels sur les merjas et les bénéfices qu’elles procurent, à travers une analyse des services écosystémiques. Si les institutions les considèrent comme des terres vierges à aménager et des zones tampon
de régulation des crues pour protéger les secteurs aménagés et les villes, les collectivités riveraines les considèrent comme des espaces productifs, défavorisés par les crues. L’étude montre des visions contrastées des services écosystémiques, où chaque acteur a une vision utilitariste des merjas. Malgré le débat international sur la biodiversité et le stockage de carbone dans les zones humides, les dimensions
écologiques sont peu citées. L’approche par les services écosystémiques dévoile les antagonismes entre acteurs, mais peut être un moyen de négociation sur le devenir des merjas dans une vision territoriale
Reiner Wassmann | Article scientifique | 21 pages | Sustainability | 2022 | Anglais |
In this study, we developed user-friendly software (CF-Rice) for calculating the carbon
footprints (CF) of rice products. The approach follows the principles of Life Cycle Assessment while incorporating more flexibility for activities specific to rice production. The graphical user interface provides empirical emission and conversion factors obtained from the literature and from primary research studies of rice value chains. CF-Rice also allows the entering of new values for specific processes or practices. Data outputs distinguish among the contributions of individual stages of the value chain as well as different greenhouse gases (GHG), namely, CH4, N2O and CO2. The new tool was then applied to a scenario assessment of rice production in the regional context of Southeast Asia. The CF baseline of a typical rice value chain in the region accounted for a value of around 2300 g CO2e/kgProd. The CF can be reduced by about 27.4% through water-saving practices alone and can further be reduced up to 37.3% through interventions that increase product recovery rates and, thus, reduce food losses. In contrast, straw incorporation into the soil increased the CF by 26.0%. The tool is well suited for impact assessments of advanced practices and technologies of rice value chains.
Ei Phyu Win | Article scientifique | 22 pages | PLOS ONE | 2022 | Anglais |
The study is focused on impact of manure application, rice varieties and water management on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy rice soil in pot experiment. The objectives of this study were a) to assess the effect of different types of manure amendments and rice varieties on greenhouse gas emissions and b) to determine the optimum manure application rate to increase rice yield while mitigating GHG emissions under alternate wetting and drying irrigation in paddy rice production. The first pot experiment was conducted at the Department
of Agronomy, Yezin Agricultural University, Myanmar, in the wet season from June to October 2016. Two different organic manures (compost and cow dung) and control (no manure), and two rice varieties; Manawthukha (135 days) and IR-50 (115 days), were tested. The results showed that cumulative CH4 emission from Manawthukha (1.084 g CH4 kg-1 soil) was significantly higher than that from IR-50 (0.683 g CH4 kg-1 soil) (P<0.0046) with yield increase (P<0.0164) because of the longer growth duration of the former. In contrast, higher cumulative nitrous oxide emissions were found for IR-50 (2.644 mg N2O kg-1 soil) than for Manawthukha (2.585 mg N2O kg-1 soil). However, IR-50 showed less global warming potential (GWP) than Manawthukha (P<0.0050). Although not significant, the numerically lowest CH4 and N2O emissions were observed in the cow dung manure treatment (0.808 g CH4 kg-1 soil, 2.135 mg N2O kg-1 soil) compared to those of the control and compost. To determine the effect of water management and organic manures on greenhouse gas emissions, second pot experiments were conducted in Madaya township during the dry and wet seasons from February to October 2017. Two water management practices {continuous flooding (CF) and alternate wetting and drying (AWD)} and four cow dung manure rates {(1) 0 (2) 2.5 t ha-1 (3) 5 t ha-1 (4) 7.5 t ha-1} were tested. The different cow dung manure rates did not significantly affect grain yield or greenhouse gas emissions in this experiment. Across the manure treatments, AWD irrigation significantly reduced CH4 emissions by 70% during the dry season and 66% during the wet season. Although a relativeincrease in N2O emissions under AWD was observed in both rice seasons, the global warming potential was significantly reduced in AWD compared to CF in both seasons (P<0.0002, P<0.0000) according to reduced emission in CH4. Therefore, AWD is the effective mitigation practice for reducing GWP without compromising rice yield while manure amendment had no significant effect on GHG emission from paddy rice field. Besides, AWD saved water about 10% in dry season and 19% in wet season.